All-electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), collectively referred to as electric vehicles (EVs), store electricity in batteries to power one or more electric motors. Batteries are mainly charged by plugging them into external electricity sources, produced from natural gas, nuclear energy, coal, wind energy, hydro and solar energy. All-electric vehicles, as well as PHEVs that operate in all-electric mode, produce no tailpipe emissions. However, there are emissions associated with most electricity production in the United States.
When it comes to powering electric vehicles, there are a variety of options available. From natural gas and nuclear energy to coal, wind energy, hydro and solar energy, the choice of power generation depends on the combination of fuels and energy sources used in your area. To understand which power generation is best for electric vehicles, it's important to understand how electricity is produced and how it is distributed. To produce electricity, a turbine generator set converts mechanical energy into electrical energy.
In the cases of natural gas, coal, nuclear fission, biomass, oil, geothermal energy and solar thermal energy, the heat that is produced is used to create steam, which moves the turbine blades. In the case of wind and hydro power, turbine blades are driven directly by the flowing wind and water, respectively. Photovoltaic solar panels convert sunlight directly into electricity using semiconductors. Demand for electricity increases and decreases depending on the time of day and time of year.
Electricity production, transmission and distribution capacity must be able to meet demand during peak use times; but most of the time, electrical infrastructure is not operating at full capacity. As a result, electric vehicles are unlikely to require greater grid capacity. According to a study conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, the U. S.
electrical infrastructure has sufficient capacity to meet approximately 73% of the energy needs of light vehicles in the country. Smart grid networks enable two-way communication between the utility and its customers, and detection along transmission lines through smart meters, smart appliances, renewable energy resources, and energy efficient resources. Smart grid networks can provide the ability to monitor and protect residential distribution infrastructure from any negative impacts due to increased vehicle electricity demand by promoting charging during off-peak periods and reducing costs for services public, network operators and consumers. In most industrialized countries, electrical energy comes from generating facilities that serve a large number of customers. These generating facilities, known as central station generators, are usually located in remote areas far from the point of consumption. The economics of generating central stations is to a large extent a question of costs. Once electricity leaves a power plant, the voltage is increased or increased by a transformer (typical ranges from 100 kV to 1000 kV) to minimize power losses over long distances.
The surplus of biomass resources available for power generation annually is approximately 189 million tons which could support approximately 25 GW of installed capacity. Hydroelectric power plants and wind farms are cousins of technology since they generate electricity without fuel only with wind and water currents. In 2030 the projected 1405 MW power generation will experience a temperature increase of 0 to 1 °C. Stirling engines allow power generation in a closed cycle with the advantage that several heat sources can be used to power the system. Diesel-powered power plants have a relatively smaller power generation capacity compared to other power plants.
Advanced grid planning and solutions such as intelligent load management will be important to ensure that existing electrical infrastructure can safely support areas with large increases in demand related to electric vehicles depending on when where and at what power level the electric vehicles are charged vehicles. Climate change is expected to deteriorate water scarcity in some regions which coupled with rising water temperatures may exaggerate the water-related risks of electric power generation. In buildings where it is not acceptable to lose power at any time backup generators are installed to provide power in the event of a power outage. Nuclear power is an environmentally friendly form of electricity generation and does not contribute to air pollution.